Tamoxifen is an active ingredient that was first sold under the trade name Nolvadex®, but is now also available from other manufacturers (generics). Tamoxifen blocks estrogen receptors in various tissues. The drug is mainly used to treat and block hormone-sensitive tumors, as estrogens (female sex hormones) promote the growth of certain breast and uterine tumors.
What is Tamoxifen?
Tamoxifen belongs to the subgroup of antiestrogens that block certain estrogen effects and activate others: the so-called SERM (Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators). The advantage over other active ingredients is that the estrogen effect is blocked in one area of the body, such as the chest. At the same time, however, other estrogenic effects, such as the desired effect on bone osteoporosis, are retained.
How does Tamoxifen work?
Tamoxifen is a selective anti-estrogen and thus inhibits the action of estrogens in certain tissues, especially the mammary gland, through binding to the estrogen receptor.
Any remaining tumor cells or metastases following chemotherapy and surgery are thus prevented from growing: as soon as the tumor cells or metastases lack the estrogen effect, they can no longer or only grow diminished.
At the same time the desired estrogen effect on the body should be preserved as far as possible: tamoxifen should protect the bone by leaving the estrogen effect undisturbed or even supported. Thus, the desired activity of estrogens can be selectively maintained and the undesirable activity, which can cause tumor growth, suppressed.
Side effects of tamoxifen
The side effects associated with tamoxifen therapy are mainly related to the lack of or increased effects of estrogens on the organ.
Thus, the following side effects may occur after taking tamoxifen:
- Symptoms similar to those of menopause
- Thrombosis and embolism
- increase in weight
- Dry skin and mucous membranes
- vaginal bleeding
Hot flashes, hair loss and nausea
Some of the side effects are similar to the symptoms during menopause. They may manifest in the form of ascending hot flashes or dry mucous membranes.
Other climacteric effects that are similar to those of menopause include nausea, hair loss and mood swings. Thrombosis and embolism can also occur more frequently.
Weight gain as a side effect
A side effect of tamoxifen is also an increased accumulation of water in the tissue, which can manifest itself in the form of an increase in weight. A frequent question of the affected patients is therefore: "What can be done to prevent weight gain?".
Who, despite tamoxifen keep his initial weight or even want to lose weight during therapy, should therefore pay attention to his diet and exercise.
This is also important because during tamoxifen therapy in addition to weight gain and the blood lipid levels (triglycerides) may be increased. This in turn is bad for the heart and vessels and can also be diminished by exercise and a balanced diet.
To monitor blood lipids, regular blood counts should be performed under tamoxifen therapy.
Side effects: bleeding and dry mucous membranes
Tamoxifen, as mentioned, can cause dry skin and mucous membranes. Therefore, on the one hand, there can often be harmless vaginal bleeding during therapy. On the other hand bleeding but also an indication of a malignant process of the uterus, which can still be stimulated by the estrogen effect of tamoxifen.
Therefore, bleeding on tamoxifen therapy in postmenopausal women or menopausal bleeding disorders must always be studied.
Further details on side effects can be found in the instruction leaflet and can be obtained from your doctor or pharmacist.
Interactions of tamoxifen
Concomitant use of antidepressants such as fluoxetine or paroxetine may result in decreased tamoxifen activity.
Application of tamoxifen
Tamoxifen is often prescribed for long-term treatment of breast cancer and taken daily for several years. The normal dosage is between 20 and 40 mg a day, usually tamoxifen 20 mg is sufficient.
When using tamoxifen, it should be noted that after a certain period of time (two to five years, depending on the study), the drug can be discontinued and replaced with another to avoid tumor cell resistance. This, as well as stopping tamoxifen, should be discussed with the treating physician.
Another area in which the use of tamoxifen is considered is the Treatment of gynecomastia - benign enlargement and swelling of the male breast. Gynaecomastia occurs among athletes and bodybuilders frequently, which is why in sports circles also the off-label use of tamoxifen is discussed.
How much does Tamoxifen cost?
You can buy tamoxifen in the pharmacy, the price depends on the manufacturer and the costs are covered in Germany up to the fixed amount limit by the health insurance. It should be noted that tamoxifen is a prescription.
Alternatives to tamoxifen
Clomiphene or clomiphene citrate (Clomid), like tamoxifen, belongs to the group of antiestrogens. clomiphene However, it is not usually used in the treatment of breast cancer, but in children and fertility problems.
In the treatment of breast cancer, however, there is another important group of drugs in addition to the antiestrogens: the aromatase inhibitors, such as anastrazole (Arimidex®) or exemestane (Aromasin®). Post-treatment of breast cancer may also take the form of a combination of tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors, for example by discontinuing tamoxifen after two years and then continuing the therapy with aromatase inhibitors.
Another active ingredient also used in the treatment of breast cancer is trastuzumab (Herceptin®). Herceptin® works in a different way, it blocks the HER2 receptor, which is found only on some of the cancers on the cells. In contrast to the aromatase inhibitors, it can also be taken in addition to tamoxifen.