- Methods of contraception
- Contraceptive methods - Mechanical and chemical prevention
- Contraceptive methods - Hormonal contraception
- Contraceptive methods - Natural contraception
Natural methods have two things in common: on the one hand, they are completely harmless to the health (although sometimes psychologically stressful), on the other hand, they are accompanied by restrictions on sexual intercourse. Most are less secure than the other contraceptives. Therefore, you should use them only if you accept a possible pregnancy.
The known and most uncertain method since ancient times is coitus interruptus, in which the male pulls the penis from the vagina shortly before ejaculation (Pearl Index: 4-18).
The calendar method according to Knaus and Ogino is based on the calculation of ovulation and thus the limitation of the lying around on average 8-9 fertile days (12-16 days before the start of menstruation). During this time is then renounced intercourse. The Pearl Index is 9.
Hormone and temperature measurement
In the hormone and temperature measurement by means of microcomputer (for example Persona®) the hormone concentration in the urine or the temperature in the morning (basal temperature) are determined and from this the fertile days are calculated. As with the calendar method is then dispensed with in this time on sex.
In the hormone measurement method, the Pearl index is 6, in the temperature method at 0.6-3.5. These methods are not suitable for women with irregular menstrual cycles and irregular everyday life.
Also the appearance and the consistency of the cervical mucus can be concluded on the fertile days (Billings Ovulationsmethode) however, this requires some practice. Currently being tested is a device that measures the carbon dioxide content in the air as an indicator of fertility.
Contraception using an app
Assist in calculating the fertile days can also provide a cycle app. The offer of such apps is great - but women should take a close look at the selection because the contraceptive apps use different methods.
Apps based on the symptothermal method (NFP method, Natural Ffamilies alsoplanung), use the measured data from the current cycle for the calculation. For this purpose, women must enter daily information on body temperature and consistency of uterine mucus or width of the cervix.
Completely inappropriate for prevention are apps that only document the cycle history of the previous months and use these statistics as the basis for calculating the next cycle.
Which method is suitable when?
The best individual contraceptive is best found with the gynecologist. Young girls will often opt for a low-dose pill with a combination of estrogen and progestin. Good alternatives are the vaginal ring and the contraceptive patch.
In older women, the risk of estrogen-related complications such as heart attack, stroke or pulmonary embolism increases. Therefore, the switch to a pure progestin preparation or non-hormonal methods of contraception such as the copper spiral or the pessary may be useful.
During lactation, methods are suitable that do not affect breast milk. In addition to condoms, these are mainly barrier methods such as pessaries, portiocaps or Lea Contraceptivum®. Pure progestins also appear to have no influence on the milk quality or the growth of the child.